Sunday, 6 September 2015

Who won 1965 war? Truth must prevail!

A million dollar question is who actually won 1965 War? India or Pakistan? For a factual and neutral answer, we have to explore the circumstances which actually put both the countries into this bloody war. In Pakistan we have two different narrations, one is the official Pakistan Study version which is essential to believe in order to be a true patriotic Pakistani and second one is the account of some left wing authors and intellectuals who always refute the official version and jeopardize their patriotism.
What we read in our curriculum books is a nice one which states that the coward Indian army attacked the international border near Lahore in the dark night with the aim of capturing Lahore. This was a betrayal, coward and irreverent effort of the enemy which our audacious and faithful forces crushed. Our Army destroyed many Indian aircrafts and ground troops. Some even announce that we had captured substantial parts of India along the border and control line.
Apart from the above two versions, there are neutral international authors and historians who describe otherwise. They say that one fine morning our generals thought that, the Muslim population of Indian held Kashmir is ready to revolt in favor of Pakistan. So this is the right time to infiltrate into Kashmir, create a revolt of locals and capture the whole of Kashmir. With this cheerful approach some generals planned an operation named "Operation Gibraltar". After planning and deliberations, our forces executed the operation and enter into the Indian held Kashmir with 40,000 Pak Army troops. In the first week of August 1965, the troops of Azad Kashmir Regimental Force crossed the Control Line and entered into the Indian held Kashmir across Pir Panjal range. The Indian Army was not prepared for this abrupt infiltration and met some heavy loses initially. Pakistan made progress in some areas including Poonch sector in Jammu. In retaliation, Indian Army on August 28, 1965 captured the strategic Haji Pir pass which was located some 8 km into the Pakistan held Kashmir. With this move of Indian Army, the Operation Gibraltar failed in achieving its objectives. Pakistan Army then started an another operation Grand Slam in an attempt to capture some major cities of Jammu but the Indian attack on international boarder in Lahore and Sialkot divided the efforts of Pakistan Army which resulted the failure of Operation Grand Slam as well.
 The experts say that both the countries faced heavy losses in this war but India has an upper hand due to the following reasons:
  • Pakistan has started the war to capture Indian held Kashmir and failed to do so
  • The losses of Pakistan, both man and material are more than India. See the details below:                     
Details of Losses
India
Pakistan
Men
3,000
3,800
Tanks
150-190
200-300
Aircrafts
60-75
20
Territory Lost
540 Sq Km
Over 1,840 Sq Km

Some independent authors also give upper hand to India. (quoted from BBC website dated August 13, 2015) The US retired Diplomat Dennis Kux says "Although both sides lost heavily in men and material, and neither gained a decisive military advantage, India had the better of the war. Delhi achieved its basic goal of thwarting Pakistan's attempt to seize Kashmir by force. Pakistan gained nothing from a conflict which it had instigated."
 English historian John Keay: "The war lasted barely a month. Pakistan made gains in the Rajasthan desert but its main push against India's Jammu-Srinagar road link was repulsed and Indian tanks advanced to within a sight of Lahore. Both sides claimed victory but India had most to celebrate."